Many years ago, the EU wanted to standardize phone chargers across the board, presumably the micro USB standard which seems to be used by the majority of phones these days, with the exception of Apple who has stuck to using their own proprietary charging cables and ports (think 30-pin and Lightning). Apple has since launched a micro USB adapter as a workaround, but now the European Parliaments internal market and consumer protection committee has taken another step forward to ensure that a universal charger will happen in the near future.
The committee has voted on a legislative resolution to create a law that would require all companies to make the same type of charger, with one of the main reasons being to cut down on e-waste. Like we said, most, if not all companies with the exception of Apple already offer micro USB charging, so if anything this law is really aimed at Apple. It will take some time for this law to come into effect, assuming it is agreed upon by the Parliament.
Apple has their own reasons for using proprietary connections. This not only creates a sense of exclusivity, but can also prevent unauthorized accessories from being made (the Lightning connector has a chip that needs Apple’s permission to be used). At the same time designing their own connection allows Apple to decide how they want their device to be laid out internally, so it is unclear how much this will affect Apple if the law does come into effect.