This seems to only apply to updates that causes a computer to experience startup failure, where if such an event occurs, Windows 10 will remove that update and users will be greeted by a notification which reads, “We removed some recently installed updates to recover your device from a startup failure.”
According to Microsoft this is pretty much a last-ditch attempt. “If Windows detects this, it will try to resolve the failure by uninstalling recently installed updates. This is only done when all other automatic recovery attempts have been unsuccessful.” In addition to being able to uninstall the problematic update, Microsoft also announced that they will block the update from installing itself automatically for the next 30 days.
This is meant to give the company and their partners time to investigate the problem and to fix the issues in which hopefully a patched update will be released within that window. Once the 30 days has passed, Windows will try to install the update again. Given how Microsoft just recently ran into some issues with a Windows 10 update, this seems like a much-welcome feature to have.